Should You Be Avoiding Dairy? What the Science Says

Did you drink milk with lunch as a child? For decades, milk was considered an essential part of a healthy diet. Depending on where you grew up, you may have been encouraged to drink a glass of milk with each meal. But milk has fallen out of favour with many health professionals in recent years.

Do You Really Need Dairy? The Top 3 Myths Busted

Decades of catchy dairy industry slogans like “Got Milk?” have kept dairy at the forefront in many households. But does dairy really live up to the hype?

Myth 1 – Dairy is Needed for Bone Health & Prevents Fractures
False! For years, popular nutritional guidelines have promoted the idea that we need to consume a lot of calcium to build up strong bones during our teenage years in order to protect against fractures late in life. However, science doesn’t necessarily agree.

A long-term study following 96 000 men and women (the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study) indicated that milk intake during the purported bone-building phase did not reduce the risk of hip fractures later in life. In fact, for every glass of milk per day in their teenage years, men had a 9% higher risk of fracturing a hip later in life. (the same risk was not seen in women)

Myth 2 – Low-Fat Dairy Helps Maintain a Healthy Weight
If you think that choosing low-fat dairy products is a good weight control strategy, you may be surprised to find out that research shows full-fat milk, yogurt and cheese to be more helpful in preventing weight gain. That is likely because the full-fat versions are more satisfying and keep you fuller for longer.
Interestingly, drinking skim milk has been positively associated with increased acne over the full fat milk.

Myth 3 – Milk is the Only Good Source of Calcium
It is true that milk contains high levels of calcium. And it’s a fact that our bodies benefit from dietary calcium in a number of ways, such as better heart health and lower blood pressure. However, milk is not the only calcium game in town. In fact, one of the few studies done on non-dairy dietary calcium intake found that plant-based calcium sources significantly reduced blood pressure.

Why Are So Many People Low in Calcium?

What we eat isn’t the only factor for proper calcium intake. We also have to look at what increases the absorption of calcium and what causes us to excrete it. Let’s look at which factors can put you at risk for reduced calcium absorption even if you eat a calcium-rich diet.

Low Vitamin D Levels
Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium properly. When blood calcium levels drop, Vitamin D helps increase calcium absorption and decrease calcium loss through the urine. If Vitamin D levels are low, it no longer matters that we eat calcium-rich foods, as they won’t translate to bioavailable calcium that our bodies can use.

High Salt Intake
If your diet is high in salty foods, you could be at risk of low calcium. High sodium levels make the kidneys work harder to flush out the excess sodium and prevent mineral imbalance issues in the blood. Unfortunately, this process flushes out more than just sodium, resulting in a net loss of calcium from our bones.

Too Much Caffeine
Excessive consumption of coffee, tea and caffeinated sodas also has a leaching effect on the body’s calcium levels. Caffeine is a mild diuretic, which encourages calcium loss through the urine. This means your body may excrete calcium before it has a chance to use it – what a waste!

High Alcohol Intake
Alcohol is another culprit of reducing calcium absorption because of its diuretic action. Furthermore, it reduces the activity of liver enzymes that help convert vitamin D to its active form. As we saw above, this means even less calcium will be absorbed.

Gut Health Issues
Much of our body’s calcium is absorbed in the small intestine. If you have digestive concerns such as celiac disease, Leaky Gut Syndrome, SIBO or IBS, you may be absorbing less calcium from your food than you would if your gut was functioning at its best.

Foods That Can Reduce The Absorption of Calcium
Foods High in Oxalic and Phytic Acid bind to calcium and reduce its absorption into the bloodstream. Many of these foods are otherwise very healthy – should you give them up? No, however, a good compromise is to avoid eating these foods in the same meal as calcium-rich foods. For example, research shows that eating spinach and milk together reduces how much calcium is absorbed.

Foods High in Oxalic Acid:
Collard greens
Sweet potatoes

Foods High in Phytic Acid:
Whole grains
Wheat bran

Beyond Calcium, How Does Dairy Affect Health?
Milk is often associated with wholesome eating patterns – but is it really such a natural beverage choice? Let’s look at the more complex side of dairy.

Hormones in Milk May Lead to Cancer
Current research shows possible links between the hormones in dairy and certain cancers. Some evidence points to Estrogen, steroid hormones and growth hormones as the main culprits. Excessive dairy consumption can thus lead to hormonal imbalances causing mood swings, anxiety and a host of unpleasant symptoms.

Reducing Dairy May Improve PCOS Symptoms
In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) too many male hormones are produced, resulting in weight gain, excessive hair growth and acne. High blood sugar is thought to make this condition worse. Studies show that a low dairy diet can help women with PCOS lose weight, lower insulin levels, and reduce testosterone.

Lactose Intolerance: Dairy is Well Tolerated by Some, but Not by Others
Many people simply can’t tolerate milk. In fact, research shows that the majority of the world’s adult population is lactose intolerant: up to 70%. That means they don’t create enough of the enzyme lactase, which is needed to digest the sugar (lactose) found in milk. As a result, lactose goes through the gut without being digested, leading to uncomfortable symptoms such as cramps, bloating, and diarrhoea.

Why is Lactose Intolerance so prevalent?

The Type of Milk Protein Makes a Difference

The dominant type of protein in milk depends on the animal it comes from. Cow’s milk is high in A1 B-casein, while milk from sheep, goats and buffalo contains mainly A2 B-casein. Many people who cannot tolerate cow’s milk find that A2 B-casein dairy products are much more easily digested.

Genetic Differences in Human Populations

We are what our ancestors have eaten. If you have a Northern Eastern European background, for example, you are much less likely to be lactose intolerant than someone with an Asian background. There is evidence that as far back as 500 BC, European babies were given animal milk. Historical genetic research shows that as dairy-loving cultures spread across the world, so did their dairy-tolerant genes.

Loss of Diversity in the Microbiome

Cultures that have been eating dairy for centuries have a diverse gut microbiome well-designed to handle it. But the microbiome is easily affected by dietary changes. With Western junk foods now available worldwide, our microbiomes are nutrient-starved and getting less diverse. Researchers speculate that this increasing lack of diversity in our microbiome contributes to rising rates of lactose intolerance.

Milk is for Babies

Every mammal’s milk is designed for babies of that species. That’s why it’s so full of the perfect proportions of fat, minerals and immune-strengthening compounds for those babies. Humans are the only ones that drink the milk of another species.

Cow’s milk is designed for baby cows. This is part of the reason for high global levels of lactose intolerance: mammals aren’t meant to drink milk (human or otherwise) after the age of five. That’s when abundant lactase enzyme levels naturally decrease, which means we can no longer digest lactose.

What to Try When You Simply Can’t Give up Dairy:What You Need to Know About Supplementing Calcium

If you are a menopausal woman or at risk of osteoarthritis, you may be considering taking a calcium supplement. The two main forms of calcium you will see on the detail panel of your supplement are carbonate and citrate. For most people, calcium carbonate is the best choice as it is more bioavailable and less expensive. In addition, you might have noticed that many Calcium supplements contain Vitamin D. The perfect partner, Vitamin D significantly increases calcium absorption.

However, taking too much supplemental calcium increases the risk of muscle tension, constipation, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease, as well as affecting the absorption of iron and zinc. Sky-high calcium levels can be just as detrimental as low levels, so it is important to work with your healthcare practitioner when supplementing.

Thinking of reducing or giving up dairy? Wondering if you’re lactose intolerant or worried about calcium? Let’s work together to do the right testing to uncover your unique situation. We’ll create a personalized plan including delicious dairy alternatives and the right supplements. Give us a call and let’s get started!


Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner B, Willett WC. A prospective study of dairy foods intake and anovulatory infertility. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(5):1340-1347. doi:10.1093/humrep/dem019 (full fat dairy reduces acne and improved fertility where low-fat dairy does the opposite)

Deth R, et al. Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of β-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.Nutr J. 2016 Sep 29;15(1):82. – type of milk protein casein affects dairy tolerance

Strengthen Your Immune Army This Fall

Are you having a Surreal September? Our traditional season of going back to school and starting new work projects definitely has a few twists this year. We face many unknowns, but here’s what we do know: our immune system is always more vulnerable in fall. And the stress of the constant pivoting of the last several months has inevitably taken its toll.

This year more than ever we must support our immune army – and September is the perfect time to get started. Let’s take a look at why our immune system is more vulnerable in fall, who is most at risk, and what you can do to get your immune army strong and ready to ward off invaders.

Why You’re More Likely to Get Sick in Fall

Viruses are stronger in the fall because of ideal weather conditions. Unfortunately, many of the same conditions viruses love can negatively impact our immune system.

Hot, Dry Indoor Air
Cold weather + low humidity = the ideal virus environment. And while the weather cools down outside, things heat up inside. Indoor heating can make the air hot and dry, which can irritate the delicate skin of the nasal, sinus and throat passages. The resulting small cracks act like open doors, allowing bacteria and viruses to enter the body. Did you know that most viruses can reproduce as much as 100 times faster in heated, low humidity air?

Less Sunlight
Our skin produces vitamin D readily when it’s exposed to sunlight, but lower levels of sunlight in the fall mean less Vitamin D for us. Research shows that Vitamin D (a.k.a. the Sunshine Vitamin) is a key nutrient needed to support a healthy immune system.

Fluctuating Weather
Fall means frequent changes in temperature, humidity, wind levels and barometric pressure. This transition can be hard on the body, causing stress as it constantly tries to adapt to this roller coaster of seasonal changes.

What are the Risk Factors for Weakened Immunity?

When a virus gets past our body’s first line of defence: our skin and mucous membranes, it will encounter our immune army. But will it meet a big, powerful army or a small, ineffective one? Let’s take a look at the factors that may weaken our immune defence.

Existing Health Issues
When a virus invades, your immune soldiers are designed to work fast to locate and deactivate the invader. But if they are already fighting battles against viruses, bacteria or any illness that impacts the immune system, there may not be enough soldiers available to wage war against the new virus.
As a result, the new virus can slip past the soldiers, (aka our white blood cells working via our lymphatic system) and cause unfettered damage.

The Potential Impact of Medication
In some cases, both the illness itself and the treatment may weaken your immune system. Some drugs (such as those used in chemotherapy or to treat autoimmune conditions such as psoriasis) work by deliberately suppressing the immune system.

Health Conditions Carrying High Risk of Impacting the Immune System:
● Respiratory illnesses like asthma or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
● Organ or bone marrow transplant
● Autoimmune conditions like Rheumatoid Arthritis, Type 1 Diabetes or Psoriasis.
● Cancer
● Digestive illness like SIBO, IBS or Leaky Gut Syndrome

Chronic Stress
Several months of sky-high stress levels have resulted in increased anxiety and general overwhelm across the globe. Research shows that chronically being in fight or flight mode can significantly weaken the immune response.

Lack of Sleep
If Netflix has become your new late-night BFF consider this: sleep is when your immune system takes note of the day’s invaders. Every night, our immune system gathers everything it has learned about viruses and bacteria it encountered that day. It notes the invader characteristics and methods of attack and creates antibodies to fight off that invader in the future. Research shows that this process of ‘immune memory’ creation can ONLY happen during sleep.

A High Sugar Diet
Eating sugar feeds the bad microbes in our gut so that they multiply. If these bad microbes become too numerous, our good bacteria may be crowded out. Since the majority of our immune system resides there, the state of our gut is a vital part of the immune response.

What You Can Do to Support Your Immune System

1 – A Healthy Diet
Did you know that 80% of our immune system resides in our gut? Starve out bad microbes, reduce mucus production and nourish your good gut microbes by eating an organic, gut-friendly diet rich in nutrient-dense vegetables. Here are some choices to consider:

Reduce These Foods:
Simple carbs like bread and pasta
Processed foods
High-fat foods

Embrace These Nutrient-Dense Immune System Friendly Foods:

Button mushrooms
Sweet potatoes
Red peppers
Fermented cabbage (sauerkraut or kimchi)


Nuts and Seeds:
Sunflower seeds
Brazil nuts
Pumpkin seeds
Sesame seeds

Spices and Soups:
Miso soup with seaweed
Bone broth

Green tea
Smoothies including fruits and veggies above
Plenty of filtered water

2 – Install a Humidifier
Make things uncomfortable for viruses by increasing the humidity of your indoor air. If you only have one humidifier, put it in the bedroom to treat the air while you sleep.

3 – Get Better Sleep
Regularly having 7 – 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep per night is a fast track to optimal immune function. In addition to forming ‘immune memories’ our bodies detox and produce hormones at night. These tasks can only happen while you’re asleep. Research shows that lack of sleep significantly weakens the immune system, and sets the stage for further illness.

4 – Set Boundaries
For a two-letter word, ‘no’ can be very difficult to say. But think about it this way: you’re not saying no to someone else. You’re saying yes to yourself. With so many unknowns this fall, make sure you don’t overcommit. Each week carve out some time for yourself and don’t book anyone else in, no matter how tempting it may be to say yes. Practice makes perfect – just say no!

5 – Get More Exercise
If you’ve fallen off the exercise bandwagon (and who hasn’t this year?), the cooler temperatures of fall make this a great time to kick-start your routine. Exercise increases circulation, making sure that your immune army cells can quickly get to where they are most needed. Avoid injury by easing back in with gentle exercises like tai chi, yoga or walking.
Ready for some cardio? It turns out that strenuous exercise doesn’t have the immune-lowering action we once thought, so go for it! Recent research shows that strenuous exercise increases natural Killer cells – a key type of soldier in our immune army.

Supplements to Support a Strong Immune System

Keeping your body fully nourished and topped up in these key vitamins can help it to be ready should the battle arrive at your door:

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that’s essential to the body. It contributes to our immune defence, among many other roles, by supporting various immune system functions. It is actively transported to the skin where it helps to create a strong initial barrier against pathogens, and it encourages the production and function of white blood cells for internal defence.

Vitamin D
The Sunshine Vitamin is now recognized as a key part of immune support by the medical community as a whole. Research shows that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher rates of infection and longer recovery times, and supplement is recommended in the winter months.

Zinc affects multiple aspects of the immune system. It is crucial for the normal development and function of immune cells, and has a crucial role in moderating the body’s inflammatory response.

Elderberries have long been used in herbal medicine to support the immune system during an illness or infection and reduce the symptoms of illnesses such as colds and flu. Packed with antioxidants, elderberry has a direct antiviral effect, blocking viral proteins and inhibiting the early stages of an infection. Try it in a delicious syrup that even kids will love!

Do you feel ready for fall? Let’s make sure your immune system is fully supported to work at its best. We can do food sensitivity testing to make sure your diet is right for you, assess your immune response, and work to reduce stress. Together we can design a personalized plan to make sure your immune army is ready to protect you against whatever this September throws at you!

Besedovsky L, Lange T, Haack M. The Sleep-Immune Crosstalk in Health and Disease. Physiol Rev. 2019;99(3):1325-1380. doi:10.1152/physrev.00010.2018
Calder PC, Carr AC, Gombart AF, Eggersdorfer M. Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):1181. Published 2020 Apr 23. doi:10.3390/nu12041181
Campbell JP, Turner JE.Debunking the Myth of Exercise-Induced Immune Suppression: Redefining the Impact of Exercise on Immunological Health Across the Lifespan. Front. Immunol., 16 April 2018
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention:
Charoenngam N, Holick MF. Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):2097. Published 2020 Jul 15. doi:10.3390/nu12072097
Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, Dunne E. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019;42:361-365. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2018.12.004